What React Hooks mean for ClojureScript – And some examples

When I first heard about ClojureScript, I looked at it through the lens of my JavaScript experience. I assumed it would be like CoffeeScript, you pretty much know the JavaScript you are generating, but now you get to type less. With ClojureScript there’s a gap between the code I write and the code that’s generated, and this gap provides powerful leverage.

I’ve often felt the ClojureScript community should seek to understand and exploit React better. Too many times, by trying to make React easier and more convenient, most ClojureScript libraries obscure many of its important features.

For example, most ClojureScript-based React wrappers try very hard to avoid classes, replacing the many React lifecycle methods with a single render function. Sometimes, this is sufficient but in many situations it’s unhelpful.

This subtle act of wrapping classes results in libraries inventing novel mechanisms to provide access to the React lifecycle methods. In reframing the object oriented paradigm of React into a functional programming one, some complexities are introduced.

Fortunately, React now has a feature that lets us eliminate this complexity. This new feature is called hooks.

Hooks allow you to use plain functions as components, even if they need to utilize lifecycle methods (e.g. for state). ClojureScript library authors no longer need to invent function-based wrappers on React, they can simply use hooks.

There are already plenty of examples of where hooks can lead to simpler code.

Using hooks directly in functions rather than wrapping with custom mechanisms means the work of the large JavaScript community is more accessible than before. The community is already hard at work creating new hooks.

I’ve created a project you can use to experiment with the snippets below yourself.

How hooks can be used in ClojureScript

Let’s see how we can use hooks in ClojureScript.

We’ll start with a very basic React wrapper:

(ns ^:figwheel-hooks juxt.blog.react-hooks-raw.frontend.main)

(defn e (1)
  [el props & children]
  (apply js/React.createElement el (clj->js props) children))

(defn mount (2)
  []
  (js/ReactDOM.render
    (e "div" nil "Hello, world")
    (js/document.getElementById "app")))

;; This is called once
(defonce init (mount))

(defn ^:after-load reload [] (3)
  (mount))
1 e provides a shorthand for calling the React.createElement method, and also converts ClojureScript maps into JavaScript ones automatically.
2 Then we create a mount function which can mount an e-created <div> into the "#app" on the page with the contents "Hello world".
3 Finally, there’s a little setup to enable live reloading.

This serves to show what’s under the hood of r/render in your favourite React wrapper: not much!

State hook

Let’s get to our first use of hooks. This example is taken straight from the Introducing Hooks post.

(defn Example
  []
  (let [[count setCount] (js/React.useState 0)] (1)
    (e "div" nil
       (e "p" nil "You clicked " count " times")
       (e "button"
          {:onClick
           (fn [e]
             (setCount (inc count)))}
          "Click Me"))))

(defn mount
  []
  (js/ReactDOM.render
    (e Example nil)
    (js/document.getElementById "app")))
1 useState returns a vector of 2 elements: the current value, and a function to update the current value.

We have a simple component with state, in very little code. This is exciting because, without any libraries, we’re able to easily take advantage of React’s new lifecycle mechanism (without resorting to something like create-react-class). This code is easy to understand, and barely feels awkward, except for e.

Example
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Removing the e function

e is difficult to read and other than pre-processors and JSX, the React community has no new solutions here. Fortunately, there are lightweight libraries which provide better wrappers than e.

All of these libraries are unconcerned with React components. Their only responsibility is to create React elements. This is ideal for our case, as we want to use functions with hooks.

I’m going to use hicada for this example. Hicada is very easy for anyone who has used Hiccup before. This allows us to rewrite the above example like so:

(defn ExampleHicada
  []
  (let [[count setCount] (js/React.useState 0)]
    (html
      [:div
       [:p "You clicked " count " times"]
       [:button {:onClick (fn [e]
                            (setCount (inc count)))}
        "Click Me"]])))
ExampleHicada
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Complex state example: useReducer

We frequently use swap! for updating state in ClojureScript. In React, Redux is a popular library for managing state. It’s similar to re-frame in that you dispatch events and handle them elsewhere. React includes useReducer, which seems to have been inspired by Redux.

(defn counter-reducer
  [state action]
  (case (:type action)
    :inc (update state :count inc)
    :dec (update state :count dec)))

(defn Counter
  [initial-state]
  (let [[state dispatch] (js/React.useReducer counter-reducer
                                              (js->clj initial-state :keywordize-keys true))]
    (html
      [:*
       "Count: " (:count state)
       [:button {:onClick #(dispatch {:type :inc})} "+"]
       [:button {:onClick #(dispatch {:type :dec})} "-"]])))

In the future, we will see a definite shift by React users towards using hooks for state management.

I’m hopeful we will see a version of Relay or Apollo which uses hooks, making them more accessible to us in Clojure. Currently it is difficult to use GraphQL which matches your component structure, and I’ve wanted this in a few projects.

Counter
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Side effects

This one is a personal favorite because I’ve seen this done wrong in a number of contexts. useEffect really simplifies interacting outside of the purity of the DOM.

(defn Effect
  []
  (let [[count setCount] (js/React.useState 0)]
    (js/React.useEffect (fn []
                          (set! (.-title js/document)
                                (str "You clicked " count " times"))
                          identity))

    (html
      [:div
       [:p "You clicked " count " times"]
       [:button {:onClick (fn [e] (setCount (inc count)))}
        "Click Me"]])))

This is really powerful, and the provided interface is simple. Getting this wrong was common due to the amount of manual wiring required with classes, especially as classes are hidden by default to us.

Effect
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Key Bindings

This one is lifted from https://usehooks.com. I chose it because I wanted to see how easily JavaScript-defined custom hooks could be integrated into a ClojureScript project. I added an export before the function, and updated it’s access to React. Using it is easy in ClojureScript:

(defn EmojiKeys
  []
  (let [happyPress (useKeyPress "h")
        sadPress (useKeyPress "s")
        robotPress (useKeyPress "r")
        foxPress (useKeyPress "f")]
    (html
      [:div
       [:div
        "["
        (when happyPress "😊")
        (when sadPress "😢")
        (when robotPress "🤖")
        (when foxPress "🦊")
        "]"]
       [:div "h, s, r, f"]])))

Pressing different keys will cause different emojis to show. Automatically, the window bindings for key presses are cleaned up by the keypress hook when the component is unmounted.

EmojiKeys
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Writing our own hook from scratch

We can easily utilize advanced functionality behind a simple interface with hooks, but how easy is it to write our own? One neat aspect of hooks is how they compose, so we can write hooks by utilizing built-in hooks. Building a view onto an atom can be done with useEffect and useState:

(defn useLens
  [a f]
  (let [[value update-value] (js/React.useState (f @a))]
    (js/React.useEffect
      (fn []
        (let [k (gensym "useLens")]
          (add-watch a k
                     (fn [_ _ _ new-state]
                       (update-value (f new-state))))
          (fn []
            (remove-watch a k)))))
    value))

Using useLens is as simple as using the built-in hooks:

(defonce state-atom (atom {:foo 1
                           :bar 1
                           :baz 1}))

(defn Stateful
  []
  (let [x (useLens state-atom #(* (:foo %) (:bar %)))
        all (useLens state-atom identity)]
    (html
      [:div
       "foo*bar = " [:strong x]
       [:code [:pre (prn-str all)]]
       [:button
        {:onClick #(swap! state-atom update :foo inc)}
        "More foo"]
       [:button
        {:onClick #(swap! state-atom update :bar inc)}
        "More bar"]
       [:button
        {:onClick #(swap! state-atom update :baz inc)}
        "More baz"]])))

This gives you part of the semantics of the single-state atom pattern that’s prevalent in ClojureScript by building on React’s primitives. It’s easy to see how a full cursor implementation could be built using hooks.

Stateful
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Hooks are not just for ClojureScript

React haven’t added hooks to grab more ClojureScript mind-share. React team member Dan Abramov has been documenting the why, and how of hooks, so I won’t discuss at length all the advantages hooks bring.

Hooks are more than just an alternative way of accessing the lifecycle, but they radically alter how you compose functionality together. I had a Bret Victor moment when Dan tweeted the ability to drop in adjustment bars into any component. Historically, something like this would have required render props & component wrapping, which hiccup-style react libraries make more difficult.

Furthermore, the React team’s experiments show that code using hooks minifies significantly smaller than when using classes. @jamiebuilds on twitter made a comparison.

All round, hooks are a big win for React.

Conclusion

The recent introduction of hooks in React has created a brand new opportunity to provide far better integrations between ClojureScript and React.

This is a significant milestone in the development of user interfaces in ClojureScript.

photo credit: SomeDriftwood Hook-A-Duck via photopin (license)

Published: 2019-02-07

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