Cheer up your testing with this small library


September 23, 2015
Malcolm Sparks

iota is a little library from JUXT that makes it quicker to author assertions in your tests.

It does this by presenting a more expressive syntax for specifying the predicates you want to be satisfied by your test.

We designed iota after observing common patterns that emerged when we were writing test suites.

One observation was that unlike Java methods that tend to return primitives, or other objects, Clojure functions tend to return data structures (maps, sets, lists), often with some deeper structure.

To test the result of functions like this, we often use a let binding where we capture the result and then write multiple test assertions.

(require '[schema.core :as s])

(let [result (some-fn-under-test)]
  (is (= :foo (:a result)))
  (is (= :bar (:b result)))
  (is (= :zip (get-in result [:x :y "z"])))
  (is (nil? (s/check result-schema result))))

iota provides a macro, given, to express these forms more succinctly, so that your assertions read more like logic truth statements.

The first argument to given is the value under test, followed by a set of triples, one per test assertion.

(given (some-fn-under-test)
  :a := :foo
  :b := :bar
  [:x :y "z"] := :zip
  identity :- result-schema)

Arguably, the iota code is easier to read, because it reduces the parenthesis, reads left-to-right and the middle operator keyword in each triple evokes logic notation.

The first keyword is :=, which could be read implies, yields or is. We apply the function (or functions) on the left hand side, and expect the result on the right.

Schema conformance

Now we have this structure for writing predicates as triples, we can have fun by changing the operator keyword.

Our first variation is to test values against Prismatic Schema. We steal the :- keyword used by schema's own custom defn to evoke the triple's meaning: the result of applying the left-hand-side must satisfy the schema on the right.

More fun

We are now limited only by our imagination (and the number of short keywords available to us in the set of all valid keywords in Clojure).

My personal favorite is the ⊃ (superset) operator which, as you might expect, asserts that the derived value is a superset of the right hand side. This is extremely useful when you want to test for headers in a Ring response, but don't want the test to break if there are extra headers in there. Of course, it has the added benefit of making your code look happier.

(given response
  :headers :⊃ {"Content-Type" "text/html;charset=utf-8"
               "Content-Length" "1298"})

Function application

Suppose we want to check that our response has a status 204, and consequently should not include Content-Length.

We can apply a number of functions, in turn, to the given value to derive a new value to compare against.

For example, if we wanted to derive the set of header fields from the response, we can specify a vector.

[:headers keys set]

We can also use keywords, and strings, to extract values.

[:headers "Vary"]

Putting it all together…

(given response
  :status := 204
  [:headers keys set] :⊅ {"Content-Length"}
  [:headers "Vary"] := "Accept-Charset")

ClojureScript support

Nicolás Berger recently sent in a very welcome pull-request which we gladly accepted, allowing iota to be used in ClojureScript tests as well as Clojure ones. So now your ClojureScript tests can now smile too, thanks Nicolás!


iota is a small yet surprisingly useful library, less than 100 lines of code. We released it a few months ago and we've been surpised by the small cult following it has attracted. Do give it a try, and let us know what you think. Suggestions for improvements (or pull requests) gratefully received!